Regional Income Disparities and Convergence Clubs in Indonesia: New District-Level Evidence 2000-2017

The results imply that proper exchange rate management and promotion of industries that cater to expanding domestic demand could be effective policies to boost manufacturing share to GDP again.

Regional Income Disparities, Distributional Convergence, and Spatial Effects: Evidence from Indonesia

We conclude arguing that neighbor effects have played a significant role in reducing regional polarization in Indonesia.